Hydrogen bus

Cleaner buses

Since last year, all new double-deck buses will be hybrid, electric or hydrogen to focus on only buying the greenest, cleanest buses. In central London, all double-deck buses will be hybrid as of 2019 and all single-deck buses will emit zero exhaust emissions by 2020. By 2037 at the latest, all 9,200 buses across London will be zero emission.

To find out more about what the Mayor is doing to improve London's entire transport infrastructure, including walking and cycling, visit our Green Transport page.

Low Emission Bus Zones

The Mayor is spending more than £300 million to transform London’s bus fleet by retrofitting thousands of buses and committing to phase out pure diesel double-deck buses since 2018.

We have announced 12 Low Emission Bus Zones, putting the greenest buses on the capital’s most polluted routes, with the first located in Putney High Street and Brixton Road.

The zones are expected to reduce NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) emissions by 84 per cent and thousands of school children in these areas will benefit from cleaner air.

Find out more about the other zones in London on Transport for London's (TfL) website.

Electric, Hybrid and Hydrogen

TfL will introduce around 3,000 ultra low emission double-deck buses in central London by 2019 and over 250 zero emission single-deck buses into central London by 2020.

Euro VI is the latest standard in diesel engines, reducing emissions of NOx by up to 95 per cent compared to the previous generation of buses. Since 2014 new buses have been supplied with these ultra low emission engines, and they are introduced across London at a rate of between 700 and 1,000 buses a year.


In central London, electric buses currently run on routes:

  • 507 - Waterloo station to Victoria bus station
  • 521 - Waterloo station to London Bridge station
  • 43 - Halliwick Park to London Bridge station
  • 134 - North Finchley bus station to Warren Street station

Routes outside central London also operate with electric buses including:

  • 98 - Willesden bus garage to Red Lion Square
  • 108 - Stratford International station to Lewisham station
  • 312 - South Croydon bus garage to Norwood Junction station
  • H98 - School Road to Wood End Green Road


Over 2,600 diesel-electric hybrid buses currently run through the capital, making up 30 per cent of our bus fleet. All of these buses are quieter, more fuel-efficient and cleaner than standard diesel buses, reducing emissions by between 30-40 per cent.


We want London to be a world leader in hydrogen and fuel cell activity.

Hydrogen is a universal fuel that will play a major role in our clean, sustainable energy future. Together with fuel cells, hydrogen will increasingly provide us all with clean and secure energy to power vehicles.

Excitingly, if the hydrogen itself is produced from a carbon-neutral source such as London's waste, solar or wind power, we have the potential for carbon-neutral and emission-free energy.

Hydrogen fuel is a great way to power public and private transport in London. The only emission is water vapor which means that no carbon dioxide or other air pollutants are released into the air.

We know it works too, as our RV1 bus ran on it until recently. These hydrogen fuel cell buses continue to operate along our 444 bus route. 

The world's first hydrogen double deck buses will be introduced on three London bus routes next year, helping tackle the capital's air quality crisis.

Hydrogen-powered vehicles have a range similar to conventional diesel vehicles achieving 350-400 miles on a single tank of fuel, and they can be refuelled within 3-5 minutes.

About Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

Hydrogen and fuel cells - courtesy of the US Department of Energy.

Hydrogen transport in London area

  • petrol pump icon
    in Cobham, Heathrow, Hendon, Leyton, Teddington. More planned in 2017
  • £ sign
    in congestion charge for dual-fuel delivery vans
  • Transport icon 2016
    hydrogen buses
    6 years on RV1 route - longest running hydrogen bus fleet in the world
  • Safety icon 2016
    hydrogen taxis
    introduced during 2012 Olympics and operated to late 2015

Hydrogen and fuel cells

  • Lungs icon
    max emissions reduced if 50% of light vehicles in ULEZ were 0 emission
  • Safety icon 2016
    at tailpipe-end reducing CO2 and NOx pollutants
  • Housing icon 2016
    and operational availability of stationary fuel cells
  • Planning icon 2016
    of the total 12%
    carbon reductions in Walkie Talkie building from a 300kW fuel cell

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