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Policy SI1 Improving air quality

SI1

  1. London’s air quality should be significantly improved and exposure to poor air quality, especially for vulnerable people, should be reduced:
    1. Development proposals should not:
      1. a)  lead to further deterioration of existing poor air quality
      2. b)  create any new areas that exceed air quality limits, or delay the date at which compliance will be achieved in areas that are currently in exceedance of legal limits
      3. c)  reduce air quality benefits that result from the Mayor’s or boroughs’ activities to improve air quality
      4. d)  create unacceptable risk of high levels of exposure to poor air quality.
    2. Development proposals should use design solutions to prevent or minimise increased exposure to existing air pollution and make provision to address local problems of air quality. Particular care should be taken with developments that are in Air Quality Focus Areas or that are likely to be used by large numbers of people particularly vulnerable to poor air quality, such as children or older people.
    3. The development of large-scale redevelopment areas, such as Opportunity Areas and those subject to an Environmental Impact Assessment should propose methods of achieving an Air Quality Positive approach through the new development. All other developments should be at least Air Quality Neutral.
    4. Development proposals must demonstrate how they plan to comply with the Non-Road Mobile Machinery Low Emission Zone and reduce emissions from the demolition and construction of buildings following best practice guidance[115].
    5. Air Quality Assessments (AQAs) should be submitted with all major developments, unless they can demonstrate that transport and building emissions will be less than the previous or existing use.
    6. Development proposals should ensure that where emissions need to be reduced, this is done on-site. Where it can be demonstrated that on-site provision is impractical or inappropriate, off-site measures to improve local air quality may be acceptable, provided that equivalent air quality benefits can be demonstrated.

[115] Guidance is currently in ‘The control of dust and emissions for construction and demolition SPG’

Poor air quality is a major issue for London which is failing to meet requirements under legislation. Poor air quality has direct impacts on the health, quality of life and life expectancy of Londoners. The impacts tend to be most heavily felt in some of London’s most deprived neighbourhoods, and by people who are most vulnerable to the impacts.

The aim of this policy is to ensure that new developments are designed and built, as far as is possible, to improve local air quality and reduce the extent to which the public are exposed to poor air quality. This means that new developments, as a minimum, must not cause new exceedances of legal air quality standards, or delay the date at which compliance will be achieved in areas that are currently in exceedance of legal limits[116]. Where limit values are already met, or are predicted to be met at the time of completion, new developments must endeavour to maintain the best ambient air quality compatible with sustainable development principles.

[116] Air Quality Standards Regulations 2010, or subsequent revisions thereof

For larger-scale development areas such as Opportunity Areas, or those large enough to already require an Environmental Impact Assessment, there should be an aim to be Air Quality Positive by implementing measures across the area that will actively reduce air pollution. This could be achieved, for example, by the provision of low or zero-emission heating and energy, or improvements to public transport, walking and cycling infrastructure, and designing out features such as street canyons that prevent effective dispersion of pollutants. Data from the use of smart infrastructure such as sensors could contribute to beneficial design solutions.

For major developments, a preliminary AQA should be carried out before designing the development to inform the design process. The aim of a preliminary assessment is to assess:

  • The most significant sources of pollution in the area
  • Constraints imposed on the site by poor air quality
  • Appropriate land uses for the site
  • Appropriate design measures that could be implemented to ensure that development reduces exposure and improves air quality.

Further assessments should then be carried out as the design evolves to ensure that impacts from emissions are prevented or minimised as far as possible, and to fully quantify the expected effect of any proposed mitigation measures, including the cumulative effect where other nearby developments are also underway or likely to come forward.

Assessment of the impacts of a scheme on local air pollution should include fixed plant, such as boiler and emergency generators, as well as expected transport-related sources. Impact assessments should always include all relevant pollutants. Industrial, waste and other working sites may need to include on-site vehicles and mobile machinery as well as fixed machinery and transport sources.

The GLA maintains and publishes an inventory of emission sources (the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory or LAEI). This inventory is based on a detailed assessment of all current sources of pollution in London and can be used to help understand the existing environment at development sites.

Air Quality Focus Areas (AQFA) are locations that not only exceed the EU annual mean limit value for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) but are also locations with high human exposure. AQFAs are not the only areas with poor air quality but they have been defined to identify areas where currently planned measures to reduce air pollution may not fully resolve poor air quality issues. There are currently 187 AQFAs across London (Figure 9.1). The list of Air Quality Focus Areas is updated from time to time as the London Atmospheric Inventory is reviewed and the latest list in the London Datastore should always be checked.

It may not always be possible in practice for developments to achieve Air Quality Neutral standards or to acceptably minimise impacts using on-site measures alone. If a development can demonstrate that it has exploited all relevant on-site measures it may be possible to make the development acceptable through additional mitigation or offsetting payments.

Where there have been significant improvements to air quality resulting in an area no longer exceeding air quality limits, development should not take advantage of this investment and worsen the local air quality back to a poor level.

Further guidance will be published on Air Quality Neutral and Air Quality Positive standards as well as guidance on how to reduce construction and demolition impacts.