Policy 5.17 Waste capacity

Policy

Strategic

A  The Mayor supports the need to increase waste processing capacity in London. He will work with London boroughs and waste authorities to identify opportunities for introducing new waste capacity, including strategically important sites for waste management and treatment, and resource recovery parks/consolidation centres, where recycling, recovery and manufacturing activities can co-locate.

Planning decisions

B  Proposals for waste management should be evaluated against the following criteria:

a  locational suitability (see LDF preparation paragraphs F and G below)

b  proximity to the source of waste

c  the nature of activity proposed and its scale

d   minimising waste and achieving high reuse and recycling performance

e  achieving a positive carbon outcome of waste treatment methods and technologies (including the transportation of waste, recyclates and waste derived products) resulting in greenhouse gas savings. Facilities generating energy from waste will need to meet, or demonstrate that steps are in place to meet, a minimum CO2eq performance of 400 grams of CO2eq per kilowatt hour (kwh) of electricity produced. Achieving this performance will ensure that energy generated from waste activities is no more polluting in carbon terms that the energy source it replaces (see paragraph 5.85 below).

f  the environmental impact on surrounding areas, particularly noise emissions, odour, air quality and visual impact and impact on water resources

g  the full transport and environmental impact of all collection, transfer and disposal movements and, in particular, the scope to maximise the use of rail and water transport using the Blue Ribbon Network.

   The following will be supported:

h  developments that include a range of complementary waste facilities on a single site

i  developments for manufacturing related to recycled waste

j  developments that contribute towards renewable energy generation, in particular the use of technologies that produce a renewable gas

k  developments for producing renewable energy from organic/biomass waste.

C  Wherever possible, opportunities should be taken to provide combined heat and power and combined cooling heat and power.

D  Developments adjacent to waste management sites should be designed to minimise the potential for disturbance and conflicts of use.

E  Suitable waste and recycling storage facilities are required in all new developments.

LDF preparation

F  Boroughs must allocate sufficient land and identify waste management facilities to provide capacity to manage the tonnages of waste apportioned in this Plan. Boroughs may wish to collaborate by pooling their apportionment requirements.

G  Land to manage borough waste apportionments should be brought forward through:

a  protecting and facilitating the maximum use of existing waste sites, particularly waste transfer facilities and landfill sites

b  identifying sites in strategic industrial locations (see Policy 2.17)

c  identifying sites in locally significant employment areas (see Policy 4.4)

d  safeguarding wharves (in accordance with policy 7.26) with an existing or future potential for waste management.

H  If, for any reason, an existing waste management site is lost to non-waste use, an additional compensatory site provision will be required that normally meets the maximum throughput that the site could have achieved.

Supporting text

5.76  Increasing London’s waste processing capacity is a major mayoral priority. The Mayor will work with all parties to achieve this.  Through the London Waste and Recycling Board (LWaRB), the Mayor will collaborate with boroughs and other partners to make the capital a global beacon of best practice in waste management.

5.77  PPS10 requires the Mayor through the London Plan to:

  • identify the tonnages of municipal and commercial/industrial waste requiring management and to apportion them by waste planning authority area
  • evaluate the adequacy of existing strategically important waste management and disposal facilities to meet London’s future needs, both for municipal and other waste streams
  • identify the number and type of new or enhanced facilities required to meet those needs
  • identify opportunities for the location of such facilities and, where appropriate, criteria for the selection of sites.

5.78  Waste issues were thoroughly scrutinised in the London Plan Examinations in Public in 2006, 2007 and 2010 and the Mayor sees no benefit in reopening recent debates, particularly those around the borough-level apportionment methodology.  However, he has acknowledged that projected HH and C&I waste arisings at borough level – the key to waste management, apportionment and self-sufficiency – need updating. The GLA has accordingly brought forward new independently reviewed borough-level projections of London’s waste arisings, and borough-level apportionment of MSW and C&I waste using the 2007 methodology.

5.78A The revised figures, based on 2009/10 data[1], show a 40 per cent drop in commercial and industrial waste arisings apportioned compared with the 2011 London Plan figures. The Mayor acknowledges that although the new baseline data may represent an underestimate of London’s waste arisings due to the economic downturn, it is considered to be the most current and best available. The Mayor will continue to monitor London’s waste arisings as updated data becomes available for use in future iterations of the London Plan.

5.79  Table 5.2 gives projected HH and C&I arisings at borough level for key milestones through to 2036. Table 5.3 sets out projected HH and C&I waste to be managed in London apportioned to boroughs based on the methodology agreed for the 2008 version of the London Plan – ie each borough’s percentage share of waste to be managed in London is the same as before.  Waste is deemed to be managed in London if:

  • it is used in London for energy recovery
  • it relates to materials sorted or bulked in London facilities for reuse, reprocessing or recycling
  • it is materials reused, recycled or reprocessed in London
  • it is a ‘biomass fuel’ as defined in the Renewable Obligation Order.

5.79A  Tables 5.2 and 5.3 show a difference between waste projected to be generated within London (Table 5.2 waste arisings) and waste to be managed within London (Table 5.3). The difference between apportioned and non-apportioned waste tonnages is summarised in Table 5.4. It is expected that non-apportioned waste will be exported. 

5.80  Boroughs may collaborate by pooling their apportionment requirements. Provided the aggregated total apportionment figure is met, it is not necessary for boroughs to meet both the municipal and commercial/ industrial waste apportionment figures individually. Boroughs need to examine how capacity can be delivered in detail at the local level as site allocations in LDFs to meet their apportionments. Boroughs should aim to meet their waste apportionment as a minimum. Boroughs should identify suitable additional sites for waste including waste transfer sites where practicable. Boroughs working collaboratively must demonstrate that their joint apportionment targets will be met, for example, through the preparation of joint waste DPDs, joint evidence papers or bilateral agreements. Where a Mayoral Development Corporation (MDC) exists or is established within a Borough the MDC will co-operate with the Borough to ensure that the Borough’s apportionment requirements are met.

5.81  Boroughs and waste authorities should identify sites which are potentially suitable for a variety of technologies, depending on the particular site’s opportunities and constraints, and assess how many facilities and what type of waste processing facilities/technologies will be required locally to meet their apportionments

5.82  It is envisaged that land in strategic industrial locations will provide the major opportunities for locating waste treatment facilities (see Annex 3). Boroughs should also look to locally significant industrial sites and existing waste management sites.  Existing waste management sites (including safeguarded wharves with waste use or potential) should be clearly identified and safeguarded for waste use. Suitable brownfield sites and contaminated land elsewhere may also provide opportunities.

5.83  Allocations will need to balance the benefits of smaller, local sites against the overall demand for land for waste and for a range of other activities in a situation in which there are severe limitations of land supply, and against the benefits of co-locating a range of facilities together in a smaller number of larger sites. The Mayor will work with boroughs and waste authorities to identify opportunities for introducing new waste capacity, including strategically important sites for waste management and treatment, and resource recovery parks/ consolidation centres, where recycling, recovery and manufacturing activities can co-locate.

[1] DEFRA London C&I Waste Study 2010

Table 5.2 Household and commercial/industrial waste projections at borough level at key milestones through to 2036 (thousand tonnes pa)

 

2016

2021

2026

2031

2036

Borough

HH

C&I

Total

HH

C&I

Total

HH

C&I

Total

HH

C&I

Total

HH

C&I

Total

Barking & Dagenham

91

113

204

99

112

211

105

113

218

111

114

225

116

115

231

Barnet

154

143

297

163

143

306

171

143

314

177

144

321

183

146

329

Bexley

98

118

216

101

118

219

104

118

222

107

119

226

110

120

230

Brent

100

145

245

106

144

250

110

145

255

114

146

260

117

147

264

Bromley

125

114

239

130

113

243

134

114

248

137

114

251

140

116

256

Camden

74

256

330

76

255

331

78

256

334

80

258

338

82

261

343

City

4

210

214

4

209

213

4

209

213

4

211

215

4

213

217

Croydon

137

136

273

143

135

278

148

135

283

152

136

288

155

138

293

Ealing

104

177

281

109

177

286

112

177

289

115

178

293

118

180

298

Enfield

127

160

287

134

160

294

140

160

300

145

161

306

150

161

311

Greenwich

102

90

192

107

89

196

111

90

201

114

90

204

117

91

208

Hackney

88

82

170

93

82

175

97

82

179

100

83

183

104

84

188

Hammersmith and Fulham

58

117

175

59

117

176

59

117

176

60

118

178

61

119

180

Haringey

96

89

185

100

89

189

103

89

192

106

90

196

109

91

200

Harrow

97

75

172

101

74

175

105

75

180

108

75

183

111

76

187

Havering

103

116

219

108

115

223

113

116

229

117

117

234

122

118

240

Hillingdon

113

225

338

119

224

343

124

224

348

129

226

355

133

229

362

Hounslow

103

148

251

109

147

256

114

148

262

117

149

266

120

150

270

Islington

68

164

232

72

163

235

74

164

238

76

165

241

79

167

246

Kensington and Chelsea

54

133

187

54

132

186

55

132

187

55

133

188

55

135

190

Kingston Upon Thames

62

81

143

65

81

146

67

81

148

69

82

151

70

83

153

Lambeth

100

106

206

104

106

210

107

106

213

110

107

217

112

108

220

Lewisham

116

76

192

122

76

198

127

76

203

131

77

208

134

78

212

Merton

71

90

161

74

90

164

77

90

167

79

91

170

81

92

173

Newham

115

111

226

123

111

234

130

111

241

135

112

247

140

113

253

Redbridge

107

77

184

114

76

190

120

76

196

126

77

203

130

78

208

Richmond Upon Thames

83

91

174

86

90

176

88

91

179

90

91

181

91

92

183

Southwark

112

162

274

117

161

278

121

162

283

124

163

287

127

165

292

Sutton

78

77

155

82

77

159

85

77

162

87

78

165

90

79

169

Tower Hamlets

73

169

242

79

169

248

83

169

252

86

170

256

89

172

261

Waltham Forest

105

86

191

112

85

197

117

86

203

121

86

207

125

87

212

Wandsworth

103

134

237

106

134

240

108

134

242

110

135

245

112

136

248

Westminster

93

582

675

95

580

675

97

581

678

100

586

686

102

593

695

London total

3,115

4,654

7769

3,226

4,637

7863

3,387

4,647

8034

3,492

4,681

8173

3,589

4,734

8323

Table 5.3 Waste to be managed in London apportioned by borough (thousand tonnes per annum)

 

apportionment 

(% share of waste to be managed in London)

2016

2021

2026

2031

2036

Borough

HH

C&I

Total

HH

C&I

Total

HH

C&I

Total

HH

C&I

Total

HH

C&I

Total

Barking & Dagenham

6.1

140

210

350

166

237

404

204

281

484

210

283

493

216

286

502

Barnet

2.7

62

93

155

74

105

179

90

124

214

93

125

218

96

127

222

Bexley

5.5

126

189

315

150

214

364

184

253

437

189

255

444

195

258

453

Brent

3.4

78

117

195

93

132

225

114

156

270

117

158

275

120

159

280

Bromley

3.0

69

103

172

82

117

199

100

138

238

103

139

242

106

141

247

Camden

2.3

53

79

132

63

90

152

77

106

183

79

107

186

82

108

189

City

n/a

50

50

100

50

50

100

50

50

100

50

50

100

50

50

100

Croydon

3.0

69

103

172

82

117

199

100

138

238

103

139

242

106

141

247

Ealing

4.4

101

 152

252

120

171

291

147

202

349

152

204

355

156

206

362

Enfield

3.7

85

127

212

101

144

245

124

170

294

127

171

299

131

173

305

Greenwich

4.0

 92

138

229

109

156

265

134

184

318

138

185

323

142

187

329

Hackney

2.5

57

86

143

68

97

166

84

115

199

86

116

202

89

117

206

Hammersmith & Fulham

3.0

69

103

172

82

117

199

100

138

238

103

139

242

106

141

247

Haringey

2.3

53

79

132

63

90

152

77

106

183

79

107

186

82

108

189

Harrow

2.2

50

76

126

60

86

146

74

101

175

76

102

178

78

103

181

Havering

4.0

91

138

229

109

156

265

134

184

318

138

185

323

142

187

329

Hillingdon

3.7

85

127

212

101

144

245

124

170

294

127

171

299

131

173

305

Hounslow

3.5

80

 121

201

95

136

232

117

161

278

121

162

283

124

164

288

Islington

2.4

55

83

138

66

94

158

80

110

191

83

111

194

85

113

198

Kensington & Chelsea

2.4

55

83

138

66

94

159

80

110

191

83

111

194

85

113

198

Kingston upon Thames

1.8

41

62

103

49

70

119

60

83

143

62

83

146

64

84

148

Lambeth

2.7

62

93

155

74

105

179

90

124

214

93

125

218

96

127

222

Lewisham

2.5

57

86

143

68

97

166

84

115

199

86

116

202

89

117

206

Merton

2.9

66

100

166

79

113

192

97

133

230

100

134

234

103

136

239

Newham

4.9

112

169

281

134

191

324

164

225

389

169

227

396

174

230

403

Redbridge

1.9

 44

65

109

52

74

126

64

87

151

66

88

154

67

89

156

Richmond upon Thames

2.2

50

76

126

60

86

146

74

101

175

76

102

178

78

103

181

Southwark

3.0

69

103

172

82

117

199

100

138

238

103

139

242

106

141

247

Sutton

2.4

55

83

138

66

94

159

80

110

191

83

111

194

85

113

198

Tower Hamlets

3.8

87

131

218

104

148

252

127

175

302

131

176

307

135

178

313

Waltham Forest

2.4

55

83

138

66

94

159

80

110

191

83

111

194

85

113

198

Wandsworth

3.8

87

131

218

104

148

252

127

175

302

131

176

307

135

178

313

Westminster

1.5

34

52

86

41

58

99

50

69

119

52

70

121

53

70

124

London total

100.0

2336

3491

5827

2776

3941

6717

3387

4647

8034

3492

4681

8173

3589

4734

8323

Table 5.4 Summary of apportioned and non-apportioned waste (000s tonnes)

 

2016

2021

2026

2031

2036

HH and C/I waste arising within London

7,769

7,863

8,034

8,173

8,323

HH and C/I waste apportioned to London boroughs

5,821

6,677

8,034

8,173

8,323

HH and C/I waste not apportioned to London boroughs

1,948

1,186

0

0

0

5.84  For waste that cannot be recycled or composted (including anaerobic digestion), the Mayor has a preference for waste processing technologies achieving the greatest efficiencies but is keen that proposals for new facilities are evaluated by carbon outcome (end-to-end) to ensure the best possible environmental impact.

5.85  To support the shift towards a low carbon economy the Mayor has developed a minimum greenhouse gas performance for technologies generating energy from London’s non-recyclable waste. This minimum performance, known as the carbon intensity floor, has been set at 400 grams of CO2 eq generated per kilowatt hour (kwh) of electricity generated. All facilities generating energy from London’s waste will need to meet this level, or demonstrate they can practically meet it in the future in order to gain Mayoral support. The GLA has developed a free on-line ready reckoner tool to assist local authorities and applicants measuring and determining greenhouse gas performance of waste management activities including waste-to-energy against the carbon intensity floor. This tool can be found at: http://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/environment/putting-waste-good-use/making-the-most-of-waste.

5.85A The carbon intensity floor has been set for waste-to-energy activities in London to achieve at least a positive carbon outcome, whereby the direct emissions from the technology are offset by emissions savings from the generation of low carbon energy in the form of heat, electricity and transport fuel. This would, for example rule out new mass burn incineration facilities of mixed waste generating electricity only, but may allow combustion of waste with high biomass content where both heat and power generated are used. This approach supports technologies able to achieve high efficiencies particularly when linked with gas engines and hydrogen fuel cells. More information on how the carbon intensity floor has been developed and the ability to meet it can be found in Policy 2 of the Mayor’s Municipal Waste Management Strategy. Waste to energy facilities should be equipped with a heat off-take from the outset such that a future heat demand can be supplied without the need to modify the heat producing plant in any way or entail its unplanned shutdown. It should be demonstrated that capacity of the heat off-take meets the carbon intensity floor at 100% heat supply. In order to ensure the carbon intensity floor remains relevant, the Mayor will consider reviewing the CIF level in future iterations of the London Plan.

5.85B  Examples of ‘demonstrable steps’ as outlined in Policy 5.17 Be would be:

  • a commitment (via a Section 106 obligation) to deliver the necessary means for infrastructure to meet the min CO2 standard, for example investment in the development of a heat distribution network to the site boundary, or technology modifications that improve plant efficiency;
  • an agreed timeframe (via a S106) as to when proposed measures will be delivered;
  • the establishment of a working group to progress the agreed steps and monitor and report performance to the consenting authority.

To assist in the delivery of ‘demonstrable steps’ the GLA can help to advise on heat take-off opportunities for waste to energy projects, particularly where these are linked to GLA supported Energy Master Plans.

5.86  Waste processing facilities, including materials recycling facilities and depots, inert waste recycling plants, composting facilities, waste treatment and energy recovery facilities, and reprocessing of recyclables, should be well designed. They need not be bad neighbours and could be a source of new products and new jobs. They should be developed and designed in consultation with local communities, taking account of health and safety within the facility, the site and adjoining neighbourhoods. Developments for manufacturing related to recycled waste, deriving fuel from waste and recovering value from residual waste should be supported. Where movement of waste is required, priority should be given to facilities for movement by river or rail. Opportunities to provide combined heat and power and combined cooling, heat and power should be taken wherever possible (see Policies 5.5, 5.6 and 5.8). Developments adjacent to waste management sites should be designed to minimise the potential for disturbance and conflicts of use.

5.87  Although no further landfill proposals in London are identified or anticipated in the Plan, if proposals do come forward for new or extended landfill capacity or for land-raising, boroughs should ensure that the resultant void-space has regard to the Mayor’s Municipal Waste Strategy.

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